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Extracts from "City of Cities - A Plan for Sydney's Future"

"City of Cities - A Plan for Sydney's Future" is the final component of the Metropolitan Strategy, the NSW Government's 25 year plan for Sydney. Below are a few extracts that are relevant to Redfern Waterloo. The extracts are shown consecutively as they appear in the report. To preserve space we have run some paragraphs together and separated sections by a double paragraph break. The Page number from the where the extract was taken is shown at the end of each extract.

2. STRONG GLOBAL ECONOMIC CORRIDOR The corridor of concentrated jobs and activity in centres, from North Sydney to Macquarie Park and the City to Airport and Port Botany has been the powerhouse of Sydney and Australia’s economy. Sufficient zoned land will be provided for business and enterprise in locations with high quality transport access. [Page 8]

7. CONNECTED CENTRES The transport network will be expanded and improved to provide access to jobs and services in the global economic corridor. Investment in the rail network and strategic bus corridors will provide faster and direct public transport linking suburban centres and areas where jobs are concentrated. [Page 9]

GLOBAL ECONOMIC CORRIDOR The corridor of concentrated jobs and activities in centres from North Sydney to Macquarie Park and from the City to Airport and Port Botany, will remain the powerhouse of Australia’s economy. [Page 11]

HISTORY OF SYDNEY’S GROWTH …Over the last 15 to 20 years, the global economic corridor - described as Sydney’s ‘global arc’ (the concentration of linked jobs and gateway infrastructure from Macquarie Park through Chatswood, St Leonards, North Sydney and the CBD to Sydney Airport and Port Botany) - has emerged as a critical feature of Sydney and Australia’s economy. This corridor has been built on the benefits that businesses involved in such areas as finance, legal services, information technology, engineering and marketing have derived from being near to each other and to transport infrastructure such as the airport. It has been reinforced by the motorway system focused on the Eastern Distributor linking across the harbour, and by the high amenity and services available in and around the CBD. Within the existing areas of the city, new medium density development has increased. Many inner city areas, including Surry Hills, Ultimo, Glebe, Erskineville and Marrickville, have become desirable locations and shops and village centres have been revitalised. Old industrial sites have been converted to residential development. Much of this development has been backed up with new infrastructure such as at Homebush Bay for the Olympics, the new Airport link and new road connections. [Page 33]

ECONOMY & EMPLOYMENT INTRODUCTION Sydney is Australia’s only global city, with 30 per cent of national employment in financial and business services and nearly half of Australia and New Zealand’s top 500 companies. Its economy is comparable in size to Singapore and larger than New Zealand’s. As Sydney’s population and economy grows, additional jobs will be created, mainly by the private sector. There are projected to be up to 500,000 additional jobs in Sydney by 2031, to a total of 2.5 million jobs. Almost half of all new jobs are expected to be located in Western Sydney and a further 30 per cent in the global economic corridor from Macquarie Park to the City through to Sydney Airport and Port Botany. The Strategy will plan for this anticipated growth. [Page 39]

KEY FACTS … • There are around 700,000 jobs in the global economic corridor, commonly known as the global arc, stretching between Macquarie Park, Sydney CBD and Sydney Airport. There are almost 700,000 jobs in Western Sydney. … • Seventeen per cent of jobs in Western Sydney are in finance, banking and business services, compared with 51 per cent in the global economic corridor. [Page 42]

SYDNEY’S COMPETITIVE STRENGTHS • The concentration of globally competitive industries, including finance and business services, tourism, education, information industries, design and advanced manufacturing are in the global economic corridor, stretching from Macquarie Park to Sydney Airport and Port Botany.  … • Sydney has a number of strategic specialised centres, business parks and knowledge precincts including Macquarie Park, Westmead, Sydney Education and Health (Australian Technology Park, Sydney University, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney Institute of Technology, St Vincent’s Darlinghurst Health Precinct), Norwest Business Park, and Randwick Education and Health. [Page 44]

SPACIAL DYNAMICS IN SYDNEY’S ECONOMY …More jobs are concentrated in office, business and technology parks, particularly in the global economic corridor. This corridor encompasses Macquarie Park, Chatswood, St Leonards, North Sydney in the north; the Sydney CBD and Pyrmont–Ultimo, and major research, health and education facilities, residential and industrial areas; and Sydney Airport and Port Botany to the south. Around 700,000 of Sydney jobs are located in the global economic corridor. A key aim of this Strategy is to build on the strengths of the global economic corridor and to grow 150,000 new jobs in this corridor over the life of the Metropolitan Strategy [Page 46]

SKILLED OCCUPATIONS - Around 80 per cent of the jobs growth in net full–time jobs over the decade 1991–2001 was in skilled occupations. Most of these jobs are located in the global economic corridor. There is also some growth emerging in major centres and Regional Cities including Penrith and Parramatta. [Page 49]

MANUFACTURING, TRANSPORT AND WHOLESALE TRADE - There has been a long–term trend for manufacturing and logistics employment to shift towards the western suburbs, with particular concentrations around Wetherill Park and the area known as the Western Sydney Employment Hub, incorporating the State Environmental Planning Policy (SEPP) No. 59 employment lands near the former Australia’s Wonderland site at Blacktown. Manufacturing, transport and warehousing activity is concentrated along major transport corridors and arterial roads such as the Hume Highway, M5 and the M7. Planning for improved links between Sydney Airport, Port Botany and the manufacturing and distribution industries are a priority of the Economy and Employment Strategy. [Page 49]


Sydney has experienced strong growth in technology and business parks. They include Macquarie Park, the Australia Centre, Australian Technology Park, Norwest Business Park, Auslink Corporate Park, Frenchs Forest and Rhodes. Business parks have a role to play in the economic competitiveness of Sydney. Areas such as the successful Macquarie Park and Norwest have had strong employment growth in the last five to 10 years. They are recognised as significant concentrations of employment and the Metropolitan Strategy has identified them as specialised centres. Business Parks can provide:

• A–grade office space at competitive prices; • purpose designed buildings for long tenancy, including for example wetlab space and front of house facilities; • on–site parking; • on–site amenities; • prestige and marketable image for occupants; • clean suburbs and proximity to a skilled labour pool; • opportunities for large corporations to custom build their headquarters; • modernised facilities with premium office space, flexible floor plates, cutting edge communication technology and recreational amenities; and • opportunities to collocate business administration and warehouse needs. [Page 66]


A2.1.1 Work with the Premier’s Council on Science, Innovation, Economic Development and Trade to prepare an Innovation Strategy focusing on boosting innovation activities at key locations. The Premier’s Council on Science, Innovation, Economic Development and Trade will be established in early 2006 to oversee the development of an Innovation Strategy to expand the Greater Metropolitan Region’s innovative capacity consistent with the principles and directions of the Metropolitan Strategy. It will later be expanded to include a whole of State Innovation Strategy for NSW. The Council, chaired by the Premier, will include representatives from industry, knowledge institutions and finance. It will be supported by a reference group to ensure diverse representation and consultation, including business leaders and unions. The Innovation Strategy will be released in November 2006. [Page 68]

The Innovation Strategy will focus on the geographic locations and infrastructure where knowledge and innovation activity is concentrated. This includes the following: • Global Sydney, the specialised centres and Regional Cities, in particular those containing the seven Sydney based biomedical hubs (Darlinghurst, Randwick, Westmead, Central Sydney, St Leonards, North Sydney and Liverpool); • educational institutes (TAFEs, universities and colleges); • technology parks (such as Australian Technology Park); • Western Sydney (information and communication technologies, manufacturing); • North Ryde (significant information and communication technologies, biotechnology biomedical device and pharmaceutical industry clusters); • North Shore biomedical; • magnet infrastructure (in addition to universities and hospital associated hubs noted above); • UWS/Campbelltown Clinical School; • Westmead BioHub; and • Elizabeth Macarthur Agricultural Institute, Camden. The Strategy will also focus on enhancing cross– regional connectivity through measures such as: • formal linkages between relevant activities (for example, the hubs which comprise universities, research institutions and hospitals, which are not always collocated but are interlinked); • the creation of formal networks between groups in different disciplines/sectors, which are working towards one end (for example, clinical networks comprising fundamental research, clinical research, public health/health services research and informatics groups); • research/business networks; and • information and communication technologies infrastructure. [Page 69]

A3 IMPROVE OPPORTUNITIES AND ACCESS TO JOBS FOR DISADVANTAGED COMMUNITIES To sustain itself as a successful global city, Sydney’s residents must have an opportunity to share in the benefits of growth and development. Increasing employment and workforce participation is an important component of reducing the significant economic disadvantage facing vulnerable groups including single parents, aboriginal communities and people with disabilities. According to the Department of Housing, at the 2001 Census, unemployment rates for public housing tenants were 30.5 per cent in comparison to the NSW average at the time of 7.2 per cent. In addition, recent data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics demonstrates that the majority of public housing estates fall in the five per cent most disadvantaged neighbourhoods in NSW. This data reinforces the importance of considering location as well as people in the development of employment opportunities. [Page 74]

EMBED SKILLS DEVELOPMENT IN MAJOR REDEVELOPMENT PROJECTS The NSW Government is committed to ensuring that individuals have the skills necessary to access the local employment opportunities emerging from major redevelopment projects. Action is required to ensure that, wherever possible, major development projects include skills training for local people in the field. This should be a key objective for housing and other items of the built environment. In this respect, the ADI redevelopment site at St Mary’s is a good example. A skilling and employment centre has been established on the site to develop strategies to ensure that there is adequate labour supply available at the end of redevelopment. The Department of Housing has been working with the developers to develop specific strategies to engage local social housing residents. [Page 74]

Housing markets data indicates a sustained decline in the supply of affordable housing for both home purchase and private rental housing for low and moderate income households across the metropolitan area. The Centre for Affordable Housing is working with the Department of Planning to develop a local government housing kit which will develop a methodology and other tools for local councils to assess housing demand and the housing market supply response. This will enable councils to target the type of housing diversity that is required in their local area and subregion. The Housing Strategy includes actions related to affordable housing. This includes requiring councils to assess local housing needs, including affordable housing, and providing options for councils to utilise affordable housing planning mechanisms. [Page 76]

A key driver for economic and employment growth is the successful start–up and establishment of small businesses. Many prospective entrepreneurs find rental costs prohibitive, particularly in inner city areas. Lack of business support such as secretarial and administrative services, technical back–up and business advice impedes the growth of a number of promising small businesses. Establishing business incubators has been one way of addressing these issues. This is an area where councils have a prominent role to play. Business incubators are designed to assist new and growing businesses to become established and profitable by providing premises, services and business support. One of the aims is to address the tendency for failure in start–up businesses. There is usually a one to three year incubation period, during which time the fledgling business becomes established before graduating into the wider business community. A3.3.1 Support the creation of emerging businesses through providing best practice advice, development controls, subregional planning, appropriate affordable premises in high economic growth areas through the Stronger Centres Initiative. The NSW Government, in partnership with councils, will assist the creation of emerging businesses through provision of low rental premises for start–up and small firms, by: • providing information on examples of best practice from Australia and overseas; • establishing appropriate development controls; and • preparing a package of related business support. The Business Enterprise Centre network which supports emerging businesses will be asked to provide assistance in this task. Councils will be encouraged to consider which centres including villages with underutilised shop tops and areas along enterprise corridors might be included in plans for emerging business. The NSW Government will work with councils, in consultation with community and church groups, to identify surplus buildings that could be utilised to provide low rental activity centres with an employment and learning component. In implementing the Stronger Centres Initiative (refer to the Centres and Corridors Strategy) the possibility of designating or identifying spaces and opportunities for emerging businesses will be a key consideration in strategic centres. [Page 77]

B3.4.1 Protect existing core commercial areas in strategic centres. Core commercial areas around rail stations will be protected from conversion to other uses in all Regional Cities and existing and potential Major Centres until future office floorspace needs in these locations have been assessed and planned for as part of the subregional planning to be undertaken with councils. If necessary, Ministerial Directions may be used to manage proposed rezonings. [Page 103]

B3.4.2 Create redevelopment opportunities for business space in the global economic corridor. In Sydney City and the global economic corridor, there are documented capacity constraints. The Government will ensure there are sufficient strategic sites available and infrastructure capacity to support the growth of these commercial office markets, particularly in North Sydney, Sydney City, East Darling Harbour, City South, Redfern and at rail stations in the City to Airport Corridor. The Property Disposal Assessment Panel will also prioritise the use of Government assets to increase land supply for commercial development consistent with other objectives. The Government will review the Strata Title Act to facilitate the redevelopment of strata titled properties. A key issue to address is the proportion of owners required to agree to the sale of a property. [Page 103]

B3.4.3 Identify, protect and promote sites for large scale development in strategic centres. In many centres development of key sites can act as a catalyst for additional development. Developers may be risk averse when it comes to being the first to undertake a significant development in a relatively untested market. As part of the Stronger Centres Initiative, sites which might have development potential will be identified. The State Government can then encourage councils and owners to facilitate development on particular sites by, for example, preparing appropriate site development controls, assisting with architecture and design, preparing site development prospectus material, marketing to key property brokers or development interests and ‘fast tracking’ approvals. [Page 103]

The global economic corridor covers a number of local government areas, includes high value rail, road, health and other public investments, high amenity areas and high land values. In this economic climate it is not surprising that there are a range of competing interests. The importance of the corridor to the economy demands that a sound structure planning framework is in place for future development. The economic strength of the corridor is built on strong planning decisions made in the past, for example, designating and protecting Macquarie Park as a key employment area next to the university, identifying North Sydney as a commercial growth centre in post war planning documents, dedicating sites for iconic developments such as the Opera House and Darling Harbour in the City, and for Fox Studios at Moore Park, and providing for airport and port related uses adjacent to these infrastructure assets.

The need for strategic land use planning is evidenced by the following: • the turnover of land for residential uses is ‘squeezing’ out vital economic activities within the City to Airport corridor; • sites for commercial development in Chatswood, with its excellent rail infrastructure, are also now limited due to residential development; • congestion is looming in and around Port Botany as industrial activity and residential development intensifies; and • a key issue is the development on Sydney Airport land, which is controlled by the Commonwealth. New retail and commercial developments on airport land, unrelated to the core airport function are creating inappropriate pressure on State and local infrastructure and there are no institutional planning or regulatory mechanisms to manage these impacts. The Strategy designates the airport as a Specialised Centre. This means its important role in the metropolitan economy should be promoted. It also means that the broader precinct should be carefully planned. Commercial development is appropriate around the rail station at Mascot. Elsewhere development should be focussed on business activities that support or relate to the core airport function. [Page 108]

The Government recognises housing affordability is a concern for existing and future households in Sydney. The Strategy includes the release of additional lands to ensure limited supply does not further reduce affordability as well as specific actions to increase the amount of housing available for households with low to moderate income levels. Housing affordability is a complex interrelated set of issues and, in recognition of this complexity, the Government established an Interdepartmental Committee in September 2005 to advise on improving housing affordability in NSW. The Interdepartmental Committee will consider ways to: • improve the affordability of housing in general, which includes the cost of construction and the supply of serviced land; • build the capacity of not for profit affordable housing providers, including the community housing sector; • develop specific policy responses for special needs groups, including seniors and the disabled; • deliver a supply of land and dwellings to affordable housing providers for development and operation; • improve access to affordable housing (owned and rented) for moderate and lower income groups in addition to social housing; and • ensure Sydney remains an accessible place for young people and for families to live and work. [Page 119]

LOW AND MODERATE INCOME HOUSING For many households on higher incomes, the decision to buy a more expensive dwelling, or invest in home improvements, is a lifestyle choice or investment decision. The affordability of housing has its greatest impact on those living on lower incomes. Low and moderate income households make up more than half of Sydney’s total. The proportion of households that rent their home continues to grow and now exceeds the proportion of all households that are home purchasers. Rental affordability pressures in Sydney’s housing markets are increasing. Rent growth continues for well located housing in the inner and middle rings of Sydney, due largely to their high levels of access and amenity. There is a long-term trend to declining amounts of low cost stock in the private rental market. This is creating more demand for social housing and other forms of housing assistance. Low cost housing stocks are declining and there has been a decrease in real terms in Commonwealth funding for the social housing sector. Government policy will focus on households with an income of $72,100 or less. This is 120 per cent of the median household income. It is estimated that 114,179 private renters and 58,898 purchasers with incomes less than the $72,100 benchmark in Sydney are in housing stress. This indicates that 54 percent of all private renters and 39 percent of purchasers in the low to moderate income range are experiencing ‘housing stress’. Housing stress is when these moderate to low income households spend more than 30 percent of their income on housing. The State Government provides public housing for many lower income households, through the Commonwealth State Housing Agreement. The provision of housing through this and other dedicated programs recognises that the market is unlikely to be able to directly provide affordable housing to the most disadvantaged. For the purpose of the NSW Government strategy, affordable housing includes housing schemes and other measures that aim to reduce housing cost stress for households that rent or are purchasing their homes, or combinations of both. The NSW Government will focus on households with a gross income of up to 120 per cent of the median income, who are spending 30 per cent or more of their gross household income on housing. The measures to be considered by the Government will be designed to improve affordability for these households. [Page 127]

C4.1.5 Incorporate housing affordability objectives in urban renewal planning, and encourage agencies responsible for urban renewal to assess impacts on the affordability of housing and use mitigative measures. The redevelopment and renewal of existing urban areas, around the world has been accompanied by reduced affordability of housing in those areas. The Government will continue to encourage agencies to assess the impact of renewal on the affordability of housing and on affordable rental stock in particular in a renewal area. In NSW there have been a number of programs established to specifically address the issue of displacement of lower income households as a result of urban renewal.

The City West Affordable Housing Company was established to address this issue specifically and provides a good model for mechanisms and programs to maintain levels of affordable housing, particularly rental stock in an affected area. The Government will expect agencies proposing renewal to assess the affordability of housing in an area proposed for renewal and adjoining areas. These agencies may be the local government that is proposing rezoning to higher densities, the Department of Housing, the Department of Planning in strategic centres, Landcom or other agencies such as the Redfern Waterloo Authority and the Sydney Olympic Park Authority. Landcom already has a policy of aiming to have at least 7.5 per cent of its projects affordable for moderate income households and has developed a thorough methodology for analysis, planning and delivery.

The Centre for Affordable Housing, a Business Unit of the Department of Housing, has been established to address housing affordability issues. The Centre pursues this objective in a number of ways: • Researching trends in housing affordability to inform policy responses and initiatives; • Working with Councils to include affordable housing in their strategies, and in specific residential development schemes; • Providing a brokerage and feasibility service to proponents of affordable housing projects;

• Sponsoring affordable housing demonstration projects; • Working with partners to deliver affordable housing in a range of major development schemes; and • Monitoring the development of products which promote housing affordability in the private sector.

The Department of Housing already has a policy that there is no reduction in the accommodation it provides to very low income households. The community housing sector is a relatively new provider of housing in NSW, but if integrated into the planning and delivery of urban renewal has the potential to play a much larger role. The best known example is the City West Housing Company (refer to case study on page 126) [Page 146]

C4.2.1 The Department of Housing will redevelop and regenerate housing estates and stock. The Department of Housing (DoH) has significant land holdings in the metropolitan area. Many of the dwellings in estates are not as appropriate for the needs of current DoH tenants as when they were first developed. Redevelopment of these estates presents the opportunity to renew the department’s stock whilst creating additional housing.

The State Government has announced its first social housing redevelopment project in partnership with the private sector, the Bonnyrigg Living Communities Project, a plan for community renewal of the Bonnyrigg public housing estate. It will involve changes in the layout of the streets, improved open space, the replacement or upgrading of Department of Housing homes and the building of new houses and flats. It will also involve developing a mixed community of public and private housing whilst maintaining or increasing the amount of public housing.

Through these initiatives with other agencies such as the Department of Health and the Department of Education and Training, it will aim to revitalise and build more sustainable communities and provide better social and additional affordable housing. New initiatives in partnership will:

• replace inappropriate social housing stock;

• reduce high concentrations of public housing to build a better social mix;

• reduce maintenance liabilities; and

• implement best practice in urban design.

In these initiatives, its partners will be encouraged to invest in private and social housing infrastructure, thereby assisting the Department of Housing in redeveloping and regenerating its housing, as well as creating new stock. [Page 148]

… As part of the Redfern Waterloo Authority’s work, Redfern station will be investigated for upgrading to provide better services for this redeveloping area. At Wolli Creek station, possible extra platforms will better serve growth in the CBD–Sydney Airport corridor and provide easier interchange between services on the Airport and Illawarra lines. A new station may be built on the Richmond line, in the Nirimba area. [Page 177]

CBD—AIRPORT CORRIDOR The CBD–Airport corridor already has a very high level of transport activity within it, with major flows of people and goods to and from the CBD, the Airport and Port Botany, all of which are expected to continue to grow significantly. Major growth in dwellings and employment in Redfern-Waterloo, Green Square and Mascot will add a further challenge to the transport task. A key challenge will be managing the impacts of transport investment needed to enhance the corridor’s economic efficiency on the communities within it. There has been much investment in road and rail systems serving north–south movements. As the corridor grows and changes, transport constraints increasingly will occur in systems serving east-west trips. Major transport works underway include bus priority measures in the CBD; Rail Clearways; arterial road improvements; and negotiations with Sydney Airport Corporation regarding transport to support its proposed expansion of the Airport. [Page P197]

E2.4 PROTECT ABORIGINAL CULTURAL HERITAGE The Sydney region contains a richness of Aboriginal archaeological sites and cultural values that are poorly understood. There is an ongoing cumulative loss of these sites and values as a result of Sydney’s urban expansion and there is an increasing demand from the community for their consideration and protection. The work necessary to identify areas of strategic significance is already being undertaken in some areas as part of the Government’s Comprehensive Coastal Assessment. As part of this process, Regional Aboriginal Cultural Landscape Plans are being prepared for coastal regions extending from Wollongong to the Victorian border and from Gosford to the Queensland border. Working with local indigenous communities to identify places of regional Aboriginal cultural heritage significance will not only provide better cultural heritage outcomes, but it will also provide greater certainty for developers. Completing the work up front will facilitate future development in appropriate locations, thereby reducing procedural delays and removing the need for lengthy site–by–site assessments.

E2.4.1 Identify areas of regional cultural significance, commencing with the Hawkesbury– Nepean catchment to provide a context for future land use planning and decision making. The Cultural Landscapes Assessment Methodology, developed by the Department of Planning in conjunction with Aboriginal communities across NSW, will apply regionally, commencing with the Hawkesbury–Nepean catchment. This will provide the regional context for Aboriginal cultural and community values and will identify areas of regional cultural significance to be considered in future land use planning and decision making processes.

E2.4.2 Develop Aboriginal Heritage Assessment Protocols. An Aboriginal Heritage Assessment Protocol will combine archaeological and cultural values in order to ensure better land use planning processes and decision making. The protocol will direct matters such as methodology and level of survey effort required, community consultation, data collection for research purposes and management actions for sensitive areas.

E2.4.3 Involve Aboriginal communities in the identification of regionally significant Aboriginal cultural heritage and the development of an Aboriginal Heritage Assessment Protocols. Two Ways Together the State Government’s blueprint for engaging with Aboriginal Communities will ensure thorough consultation is the foundation for an assessment protocol. E2.4.4 Develop Heritage Permits under the Department of Environment and Conservation’s Aboriginal Heritage Reforms Package for local plans. This action will enable Aboriginal heritage issues to be considered early in the planning process when land use decisions are being made. Similar to the biodiversity certification process, the proposed reform will provide greater certainty and efficiency for the consideration of Development Applications by landowners [Page 215]

The main focus for national and international business, professional services, specialised health and education precincts, specialised shops and tourism, Global Sydney is also a recreation and entertainment destination for the Sydney region and has national significance.

Global Sydney retains a dominant role in Sydney in terms of employment, economic and social activity. Global Sydney is divided into two important centres, Sydney CBD and North Sydney, and a number of precincts: Kings Cross, Surry Hills and Darlinghurst/St Vincent’s to the east, and Pyrmont/Ultimo and the city knowledge precincts to the south and west of the CBD. These precincts have high levels of employment which support the city and also have distinct roles and identities including a residential ‘village’ atmosphere.

This area is referred to as Global Sydney because it is recognised as the global hub of the Australian economy. In the 1960s, the city spread northward over the Harbour Bridge to Milsons Point and North Sydney. North Sydney is the largest non–CBD centre in Australia. In the 1990s, major development around Darling Harbour prompted a shift to CityWest. There is now southward pressure on the Sydney CBD and increasingly along the City to Airport corridor. Half of Sydney’s jobs in the strategic centres are located in the two centres of Global Sydney.

Wealth creation in Global Sydney is driven largely by global links. Around 380,000 people are employed in Global Sydney, representing 20 per cent of the total jobs in the Sydney area. Employment has been growing strongly over the past decade with jobs concentrated in high growth areas such as finance and business services, tourism and hospitality, information industries, creative industries, retail, education and multimedia.

Around 70 per cent of people working in the Sydney CBD use active transport — public transport, cycling and walking —to travel to work.

Around 50,000 new jobs were created in Sydney CBD between 1991 and 2001 alone and 70,000 in total in Global Sydney. The area has a high concentration of knowledge–based jobs — jobs with high skill levels, higher education, responsibility and attractive salaries. More than half of the Global Sydney workforce has a post high school qualification.

The city knowledge precincts which include the Redfern–Waterloo area and incorporate the Australian Technology Park, Sydney University, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, University of Technology Sydney and Sydney Institute of Technology, are major activity precincts for education, research and technology based jobs.

North Sydney developed a strong competitive advantage due to the surrounding high skilled and high income residential areas, access to the Sydney CBD, and proximity to the harbour. The centre developed clusters of activities around IT, advertising and business service industries. More recently, the centre has faced increasing competition from business parks such as Macquarie Park and Norwest, as well as Sydney CBD and Pyrmont–Ultimo. The centre is confronting a number of challenges including older building stock, transport impediments and amenities in the centre.

Strong employment growth of 60,000 jobs is forecast for Global Sydney to 2031 though at a slower rate than in the past decade, due to rapidly growing regions and business parks, and Government policy to strengthen Sydney as a multicentred city. Global Sydney’s share of total jobs in existing strategic centres will decline from around 50 per cent to 44 per cent over the life of the Metropolitan Strategy. [Page 296]

MAJOR CENTRES - Major Centres are the main shopping and business centre for a district, with a full scale shopping mall, council offices, taller office and residential buildings, and central community facilities.

In many cases, Major Centres are the focus for major institutions, principally serving immediate subregional residential populations on located on the fixed rail network. At a minimum, 8,000 jobs are located in these centres, and by 2031, they will generally contain a minimum of 10,000 jobs.

These centres are mostly located on the heavy rail transport network and serviced by local bus networks. The only exceptions are Castle Hill and Dee Why. The new Strategic Bus Corridors will also service these centres. For those not on the heavy rail network, improving public transport is a high priority.

The employment role of centres in growing areas such as Blacktown and Campbelltown will increase in the future. Other major centres expected to grow include Bankstown, Bondi Junction, Burwood, Chatswood, Hornsby and Hurstville. Rouse Hill and Green Square are planned as Major Centres. A number of other locations such as Mount Druitt may grow into major centres over the next 30 years.

Major Centres can be divided into established, planned and potential centres. Established centres are those that have evolved along Sydney’s heavy rail network, and are at different stages in their growth. The established major centres are Bankstown, Blacktown, Bondi Junction, Burwood, Campbelltown, Castle Hill, Chatswood, Dee Why, Gosford, Hornsby, Hurstville, Kogarah and Wyong–Tuggerah.

Planned Major Centres are locations for shopping and services in identified residential growth areas. Examples include Rouse Hill, Green Square and Leppington.

Potential Major Centres are centres with existing assets which may have increased development in the future. Examples include Sutherland, Cabramatta, Mt Druitt, Fairfield and Prairiewood. [Page 298]